Num | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


1D-Var One-dimensional variational analysis

3D-Var Three-dimensional variational analysis

4D-Var Four-dimensional variational analysis


AAPP ATOVS and AVHRR processing package

ADEOS Advanced Earth Observing System (launched in 1996, ADEOS II launched in 2002)

AIRS Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

AMI Active Microwave Instrument

AMSR Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer

AMSU Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

AMV Atmospheric motion vector (satellite wind)

AS Associate Scientist

ASCAT Advanced Scatterometer


AVHRR Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

AWDP ASCAT Wind Data Processor


BUFR Binary universal format for data representation


C-band 3.90-6.20 GHz frequency radiation (used by ERS-2)

CGMS Co-ordination Group for Meteorological Satellites

CHAMP Challenging Mini–Satellite Payload

CIMSS Co-operative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA)

CLW Cloud Liquid Water

CMOD4 Scatterometer transfer function for the C-band ERS scatterometer

CMS Centre de Météorologie Spatiale (of Météo-France)

CNES Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (of France)

CNRM Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques

COSMIC Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate


DMI Danmarks Meteorologiske Institut (Danish Meteorological Institute)

DMSP Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (USA)

DoD US Department of Defense

DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst


EC Environment Canada

ECMWF European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts

EGOPS End-to-end GNSS Occultation Performance Simulator

ENVISAT Environmental Satellite

EOF Empirical Orthogonal Function

EOS Earth Observing System


ERS European Remote Sensing satellite

ESA European Space Agency

EUMETSAT European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites

EURD End User Requirements Document


FAQ Frequently asked question

FM Forward Model

FMI Finnish Meteorological Institute

FASTEM FAST Emissivity Model

FR Final Review

FTP File Transfer Protocol


GALILEO European GNSS constellation project (EU)

GERB Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget experiment

GLONASS Global Navigation Satellite System (Russia)

GMF Geophysical Model Function

GMS Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (Japan)

GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System (GPS + GLONASS and the future GALILEO)

GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (USA)

GOME Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

GPS Global Positioning System (USA)

GPS/MET Global Positioning System / Meteorology experiment

GRAS GNSS Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding

GTS Global Telecommunications System


HIRLAM High-resolution Limited Area Model

HIRS High-resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

HRPT High-resolution Picture Transmission


IAMAP International Association for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

IASI Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

IEEC Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya

IMD Indian Meteorological Department

IO Input/Output

IRM Institut Royal Météorologique de Belgique

ISRF Instrument Spectral Response Function

ISSWG IASI Sounder Science Working Group

ISWMR Integrated Satellite Wind Monitoring Report

ITRA Intercomparison of Transmittance and Radiance Algorithms


KNMI Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut

Ku-band 10.9-18.0 GHz frequency radiation (used by QuickSCAT)


LBL Line-by-line (type of radiative transfer model)

LMD Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (Palaiseau, France)


MetDB Meteorological Database

METOP Meteorological Operational Polar satellite

MHS Microwave Humidity Sounder

MLE Maximum likelihood estimator

MOP METEOSAT Operational Programme

MPEF Meteorological Product Extraction Facility (of EUMETSAT)

MSC Meteorological Service of Canada (a division of Environment Canada)

MSG METEOSAT Second Generation satellite

MTG METEOSAT Third Generation satellite

MTP METEOSAT Transitional Programme

MTR Mid-Term Review

MTSAT Next generation geostationary meteorological satellite, Japan

MVD Mean vector difference

MVIRI METEOSAT Visible and Infrared Imager


NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration (of the USA)

NCEP National Centers for Environmental Prediction (of the USA)

NESDIS National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (of NOAA)

NMS National meteorological service

NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminstration (of the USA); polar-orbiting satellite series of same name

NRL Naval Research Laboratory, Monterey, California

NRMSVD Normalised root mean square vector difference

NRT Near real time

NSCAT Navy Scatterometer (USA)

NSMC National Satellite Meteorological Center (China)

NWP Numerical weather prediction


OMI Ozone Monitoring Instrument

OPS-LRS Operation Software – Local Reception Station

OPTRAN Optical Path Transmittance model

ORA Office of Research Applications, NESDIS

OSE Observing System Experiment

OSSE Observing System Simulation Experiment


QI Quality Indicator

QC Quality Control

QuickSCAT Ku-band scanning scatterometer (on SeaWinds platform)


R+D Research and Development

RAPR Requirements Assessment and Planning Review

RMS Root Mean Square

RO Radio Occultation

ROM SAF Radio Occulation for Meteorology SAF

ROPP Radio Occultation Processing Package

RTM Radiative Transfer Model

RTTOV Radiative Transfer model for TOVS


SAF Satellite Application Facility

SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar

SATOB WMO code format “SATOB”

SCAT Scatterometer (on ERS-1 and ERS-2)

SCIAMACHY Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography

SD Standard deviation

SDP SeaWinds Data Processor

SEVIRI Scanning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager

SSG SAF Steering Group

SSM/I Special Sensor Microwave / Imager

SSMIS Special Sensor Microwave Imager-Sounder

SST Sea-surface temperature

STG Scientific and Technical Group (of EUMETSAT)

SSU Stratospheric Sounding Unit


TIROS Television and Infrared Observation Satellite

TOA Top of the atmosphere

TOVS TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder


UM Unified Model (Met Office’s NWP model suite)

UR User requirements


VS Visiting Scientist


WMO World Meteorological Organization

WV Water vapour